MSU / AMSU

地球微波排放的卫星测manbet客户端2.0万博吧量是开发精确系统的重要元素,用于大气温度的长期监测。卫星在更高的密度范围内提供全球覆盖率而不是可实现的in situ观察。原位observations also suffer from non-uniform temporal coverage and undocumented changes in the instrumentation used that can lead to local biases and increased uncertainty.

微波温度听起来

卫星可以通过评估大气中的气体热排放来测量大气的温度。分子氧在60GHz附近具有相对强烈的吸收管线的复合物。通过选择不同的测量频率,因此吸收率的​​不同值,可以测量来自大气的不同层的发射。RSS研究了3系列卫星传播的微波manbet客户端2.0万博吧发声器制造的测量,以便构建长期,气候质量的大气温度数据集以供科学界使用。下面列出了3个仪器

Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU)

The Microwave Sounding Units (MSU) operating on NOAA polar-orbiting satellite platforms were the principal sources of satellite temperature profiles from late 1978 to the early 2000's. The MSUs were cross-track scanners that made measurements of microwave radiance in four channels ranging from 50.3 to 57.95 GHz on the lower shoulder of the Oxygen absorption band. These four channels measured the atmospheric temperature in four thick layers spanning the surface through the stratosphere. The were 9 MSUs in total. The last MSU instrument, NOAA-14, ceased reliable operation in 2005.

先进的微波调音单元(AMSU)

A series of follow-on instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Units (AMSUs), began operation in 1998. The AMSU instruments are composed of 2 sub units, AMSU-A and AMSU-B. AMSU-B is a humidity sounder (not discussed further), and AMSU-A is a 15-channel temperature sounder similar to MSU. Of the 15 channels, 11 (Channels 4 through 14) are located in the 60 GHz absorption complex and thus are most closely related to atmospheric temepratures at various heights above the surface. The increased number of channels relative to MSU means that AMSU-A samples the temperature of the atmosphere in a larger number of layers. The AMSU measurement footprints are also smaller than those for MSU, leading to higher spatial resolution. 3 AMSU channels (Channels 5,7,and 9) are closely matched to MSU channels 2,3 and 4. By using these channels,we have extended our climate-quality dataset to the present.

此外,我们已经完成了AMSU通道10-14的初步分析,该初步分析了平流层的温度高于最高MSU通道(通道4)。这些数据集开始于1998年中期,并在NOAA-15卫星上推出了第一件AMSU。这些数据集现在已经长时间14年开始长时间才能调查中型和上层之间的长期变化变得有趣。

到目前为止,有8个AMSU仪器,5个ONAA平台(NOAA-15至NOAA-19),2 ON Eumetsat平台(Metop-A和MetoP-B),以及NASA Aqua卫星。

先进的技术微波调音器(ATM)

In the future, the AMSU instruments will be phased out, and replaced with the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). The first ATMS was launched October 28, 2011. Measurements made by the ATMS are not yet used in our products. We are working to cross-calibrate ATMS with AMSU so that ATMS measurements can be included in future products.

所有微波探测仪表都是为日常运行天气预报开发的,因此通常不会校准气候研究所需的精确度。仅通过仔细的MSU,AMSU和ATMS仪器的仔细互连,包括从MSU,AMSU和ATMS仪器的仔细互连,包括去除不导致的杂散manbet客户端2.0万博吧信号,因此可以从MSU和AMSU测量中提取气候质量数据集。

Period of Operation for MSU and AMSU

下面的图1显示了卫星贡献每个月有效数据的示例曲线。此绘图用于TLS,它使用MSU通道4和AMSU通道9.由于仪器历史的差异小,其他产品的类似地块略有不同。例如,NOAA-09卫星上的MSU通道2比同一卫星上的MSU通道4更早地失败,因此TMT和TLT的相应曲线将与此处所示的不同。
Figure. 1 Plot of which satellites are used for each month to construct the MSU/AMSU TLS dataset.

Microwave Sounding Data Products from RSS

We currently provide a number of data products constructed by merging the MSU and AMSU Data from different satellites together. These include

  • 3单通道MSU / AMSU数据集(TMT,TTS和TLS)延迟返回1978年底
  • 5 single channel AMSU-only stratospheric datasets (C10, C11, C12, C13, and C14) that begin in mid 1998. These datasets are fairly early in their development process and should be considered preliminary (C10-C12) or experimental (C13 and C14).
  • TLT是通过计算在不同地球入射角的测量之间的加权差异来构造的更复杂的数据集,以推断MSU通道2和AMSU通道5在大气中更低的测量。万博吧manbet客户端2.0
  • 2多通道数据集,TTT和C25,其由单声道数据集的加权组合构成。由于C25由AMSU通道C10-C13构成,因此应该考虑初步。

在上部空气温度测量页面中更详细地讨论这些产品中的每一个。万博吧manbet客户端2.0

参考

Mears,C. A.和F. J.Ventz,(2017)使用优化的昼夜效应调整,卫星衍生的下部对流层大气温度数据集,气候,30(19),7695-7718,DOI:10.1175 / JCLI-D-16-0768.1。

Mears, C. A. and F. J. Wentz, (2016)Sensitivity of satellite-derived tropospheric temperature trends to the diurnal cycle adjustment《气候,29 (10),3629-3646, doi: DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0744.1.

Mears, C. A., F. J. Wentz and P. W. Thorne, (2012)评估微波探测单元 - 无线电探测器比较的价值在对流层气温气候数据记录中确定误差,J. Geophys。Res。,117(D19),D19103,DOI:10.1029 / 2012JD017710。

Mears, C. A., F. J. Wentz, P. Thorne and D. Bernie, (2011)使用Monte-Carlo估计技术评估来自MSU和AMSU的大气温度变化的估计不确定性,J. Geophys。Res., 116, D08112, doi:10.1029/2010JD014954.

Mears, C. A. and F. J. Wentz, (2009)从MSU和AMSU微波调位施加RSS V3.2降低对流层数据集, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 26, 1493-1509.

Mears, C. A. and F. J. Wentz, (2009)MSU和AMSU微波调位遥感系统的遥感系万博体育app网页注册统V3.2大气温度记录, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 26, 1040-1056.

Mears,C. A.和F. J.Ventz,(2005)The Effect of Drifting Measurement Time on Satellite-Derived Lower Tropospheric Temperature, Science, 309, 1548-1551.

Mears, C. A., M. C. Schabel and F. J. Wentz, (2003)MSU通道2的重新分析对流层温度记录,气候,16(22),3650-3664。

Prabhakara, C., R. Iacovazzi Jr, J.-M. Yoo, G. Dalu. "Global warming: Estimation from satellite observations"Geophysical Research Letters,卷。27(21),3517-3520,2000。

Vinnikov,K. Y.,N.C.C.C. Grodation,A. Robock,R. J. Stouffer,P. D. Jones和M. D. Goldberg。“表面和对流层的温度趋势”Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, D03106, 2005.

Prabhakara, C., R. Iaacovazzi, J. M. Yoo, and G. Dalu. "Global Warming: Evidence From Satellite Observations"Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 3517-3520, 2000.

Fu,Q.和C. M. Johanson。“卫星衍生的对流层温度趋势的垂直依赖性”Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L10703, 2005.

J. R. Christy, R. W. Spencer, W. D. Braswell. "MSU Tropospheric Temperatures: Dataset Construction and Radiosonde Comparisons"Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol. 17, pp. 1153-1170, 2000.

承认

MSU/AMSU data are produced by Remote Sensing Systems. Over the years, we have received support for the development of this dataset from a number of sources, including NOAA's Office of Global Programs, NOAA's Climate Program Office, and NOAA's Climate Data Record Program. Production of the current dataset (version 3.3) is supported by NOAA's Climate Data Record Program, while improvements to the methods used to produce the dataset are currently supported by NASA's Earth Science Division, which is part of the Science Mission Directorate.

如何引用这些数据

TLT:

TMT:

TTT:

TTS和TLS:

Uncertainty Estimates:

无线电探空仪比较: