Atmospheric River Watch

What is an Atmospheric River?

大气河流(AR)是大气中狭窄的水分和水分运输走廊。朱和纽尔(1998)估计典型AR中的水分通量与亚马逊河流中的助焊剂相当,约为1.6亿公斤/秒。ARS在繁重的降水和洪水中发挥着至关重要的作用,包括所谓的巨型洪水(Dettinger和Ingram,2013; Ralph和Dettinger,2012; Moore等,2012)。

ARs are classified based on the source of the moisture. ARs with the moisture source in the East Pacific are often called “Pineapple Express” storms (Dettinger, 2004), and occur more in northern hemisphere winters. Moisture transport from the West Pacific produces the Bai-u / Mei-yu (as it’s known in Japanese / Chinese) rainy season in northern hemisphere summers (Knippertz and Wernli, 2010). Moisture from the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea reaches the inland continental United States via the Great Plains Low Level Jet (Barandiaran et al., 2013). This moisture transport occurs most frequently in northern hemisphere summers. And the North Atlantic is a moisture source for Europe (Lavers et al., 2011; Stohl et al., 2008), with maximum transport in northern winters.


Identifying Atmospheric Rivers in Satellite Microwave Data

Passive microwave satellite remote sensing provides highly accurate measurements of total column integrated water vapor (Wentz et al., 2007). Neiman et al. (2008) and Dettinger et al. (2011) have used SSM/I water vapor to identify ARs based on the criteria that an AR has > 20 mm of water vapor and is > 2000 km long and < 1000 km wide. Water vapor is available from many microwave sensors including AMSR-E, AMSR2, GMI, SSM/I, SSMIS, TMI, and WindSat. ARs can also be identified based on moisture transport, but estimating moisture transport requires vertical profiles of vapor and wind, which cannot be accurately measured by satellites (Hilburn, 2010). In addition to moisture, the production of heavy precipitation also requires atmospheric instability and a source of lift. The heavy rainfall in California in December 2014 highlighted the importance of strong Aleutian low dynamics in producing heavy precipitation (Hilburn and Wentz, 2014).



在此网页上每小时更新图像,我们提供了最后七天,以帮助一个人找到任何开发AR的湿度。请注意,这些图像不会预测, but are looking backwards in time. Since the images combine 24 hours of data for each image, you may observe “double fronts” where meteorological features moved during the day and were sampled at different locations by different sensors or by the same sensor at two different times. Light gray areas exists were there are no measurements available or if over land and coastal areas.

If you would like to learn more about atmospheric rivers, see theNoaa Esrl网页这有很多好的信息,还包括7-day forecastsbased on NCEP GFS model data.


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Barandiaran,D.,S.-Y。王,K. Hilburn,2013年res。吧书,40(23),6247-6251,DOI:10.1002 / 2013GL058296。

Dettinger, M., 2004: Fifty-two years of “pineapple-express” storms across the west coast of North America, California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program Project Report CEC-500-2005-004.

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