Atmospheric River Watch

What is an Atmospheric River?

大气河流(AR)是大气中狭窄的水分和水分运输走廊。朱和纽尔(1998)估计典型AR中的水分通量与亚马逊河流中的助焊剂相当,约为1.6亿公斤/秒。ARS在繁重的降水和洪水中发挥着至关重要的作用,包括所谓的巨型洪水(Dettinger和Ingram,2013; Ralph和Dettinger,2012; Moore等,2012)。

ARs are classified based on the source of the moisture. ARs with the moisture source in the East Pacific are often called “Pineapple Express” storms (Dettinger, 2004), and occur more in northern hemisphere winters. Moisture transport from the West Pacific produces the Bai-u / Mei-yu (as it’s known in Japanese / Chinese) rainy season in northern hemisphere summers (Knippertz and Wernli, 2010). Moisture from the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea reaches the inland continental United States via the Great Plains Low Level Jet (Barandiaran et al., 2013). This moisture transport occurs most frequently in northern hemisphere summers. And the North Atlantic is a moisture source for Europe (Lavers et al., 2011; Stohl et al., 2008), with maximum transport in northern winters.

特别是有趣的是ARS满足高地地形的情况,因为上升流量增加了地形贡献以降水速率。

Identifying Atmospheric Rivers in Satellite Microwave Data

Passive microwave satellite remote sensing provides highly accurate measurements of total column integrated water vapor (Wentz et al., 2007). Neiman et al. (2008) and Dettinger et al. (2011) have used SSM/I water vapor to identify ARs based on the criteria that an AR has > 20 mm of water vapor and is > 2000 km long and < 1000 km wide. Water vapor is available from many microwave sensors including AMSR-E, AMSR2, GMI, SSM/I, SSMIS, TMI, and WindSat. ARs can also be identified based on moisture transport, but estimating moisture transport requires vertical profiles of vapor and wind, which cannot be accurately measured by satellites (Hilburn, 2010). In addition to moisture, the production of heavy precipitation also requires atmospheric instability and a source of lift. The heavy rainfall in California in December 2014 highlighted the importance of strong Aleutian low dynamics in producing heavy precipitation (Hilburn and Wentz, 2014).

大气河图像的描述

此页面上的图像提供每日平均水蒸气和来自所有可用RSS卫星数据的日常最大风速。高蒸气(蓝色色调)的区域显示ARS和高风速(红色色调)的区域显示出强烈的风暴能量。风速估计来自与水蒸气估计相同的卫星。风速不能在雨水位置估计,并且在大雨中无法估算水蒸气。来自SSMIS的风是“中等频率”,而来自AMSR2和WINDSAT的风是“低频”风。中低频风之间只有轻微差异。

在此网页上每小时更新图像,我们提供了最后七天,以帮助一个人找到任何开发AR的湿度。请注意,这些图像不会预测, but are looking backwards in time. Since the images combine 24 hours of data for each image, you may observe “double fronts” where meteorological features moved during the day and were sampled at different locations by different sensors or by the same sensor at two different times. Light gray areas exists were there are no measurements available or if over land and coastal areas.

If you would like to learn more about atmospheric rivers, see theNoaa Esrl网页这有很多好的信息,还包括7-day forecastsbased on NCEP GFS model data.

我们全年提供这些图像。由于ARS主要在冬季影响美国西海岸,因此图像将显示夏季和秋季热带旋风等强大而潮湿的事件。

Daily Watch of Atmospheric Conditions

今天

昨天

2 Days Ago

3 Days Ago

4 Days Ago

5天前

6天前

7天前

过去7天的电影

参考

Barandiaran,D.,S.-Y。王,K. Hilburn,2013年res。吧书,40(23),6247-6251,DOI:10.1002 / 2013GL058296。

Dettinger, M., 2004: Fifty-two years of “pineapple-express” storms across the west coast of North America, California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program Project Report CEC-500-2005-004.

Dettinger,M. D.,F.M.M.Ralph,T.Das,P.J.Neiman,D. R. Cayan,2011:大气河流,洪水和加州的水资源。, 3, 445-478; doi: 10.3390/w3020445.

Dettinger, M. D., and B. L. Ingram, 2013: The coming megafloods. Scientific American, January 2013, 64-71.

Hilburn,K. A.,2010年:Intercomparison of water vapor transport datasets. Abstract H31H-1098 presented at 2010 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 13-17 Dec.

Hilburn,K.和F.Ventz,2014年:间校准的被动微波亮度温度数据记录和海洋产品。Abstract A51I-3147 presented at the 2014 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, CA, 15-19 Dec.

Knippertz, P., and H. Wernli, 2010: A Lagrangian climatology of tropical moisture exports to the Northern Hemispheric extratropics.J. Climate, 23, 987-1003.

Lavers, D. A., R. P. Allan, E. F. Wood, G. Villarini, D. J. Brayshaw, A. J. Wade, 2011: Winter floods in Britian are connected to atmospheric rivers.Geophys. Res. Letts., 38, L23803, doi:10.1029/2011GL049783.

Moore, B. J., P. J. Neiman, F. M. Ralph, F. E. Barthold, 2012: Physical processes associated with heavy flooding and rainfall in Nashville, Tennessee, and vicinity during 1-2 May 2010: The role of an atmospheric river and mesoscale convective systems.星期一,我们。牧师。, 140, 358-378.

Neiman, P. J., F. M. Ralph, G. A. Wick, J. D. Lundquist, and M. D. Dettinger, 2008: Meteorological characteristics and overland precipitation impacts of atmospheric rivers affecting the west coast of North America based on eight years of SSM/I satellite observations.J. Hydometeor。,9,22-47。

Ralph, F. M., and M. D. Dettinger, 2012: Historical and national perspectives on extreme West Coast precipitation associated with atmospheric rivers during December 2010.Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 783-790, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00188.1.

STOHL,A.,C. Forster,H. Sodermann,2008年:60°N的挪威西海岸在挪威西海岸沉淀的远程来源 - 飓风和大气河流的故事。J. Geophys。res。, 113, D05102, doi:10.1029/2007JD009006.

Wentz, F. J., L. Ricciardulli, K. A. Hilburn and C. A. Mears, 2007: How Much More Rain Will Global Warming Bring?,科学, 317, 233 - 235。

朱,Y.和R. E. Newell,1998:一种来自大气河流的水分助焊剂的提议算法。星期一,我们。牧师。,126,725-735。